Author h.venev
Recipients Jim.Jewett, Mark.Shannon, benjamin.peterson, h.venev, serhiy.storchaka, vaultah
Date 2021-01-30.21:28:47
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> Why is the first key built up as vx='x'; vx += '1' instead of just k1="x1"?

I wanted to construct a key that is equal to, but not the same object as, `'x1'`. Consider this example:

    assert 'x1' is 'x1'
    spam = 'x1'
    assert spam is 'x1'
    eggs = 'x'
    eggs += '1'
    assert eggs == 'x1'
    assert eggs is not 'x1'
    assert sys.intern(eggs) is 'x1'

When doing a dict lookup and the lookup key is the same object as a stored entry, `__eq__` is not called. Lookups are then significantly faster, maybe 20%.

Consider this example:

    class EqTest:
        def __eq__(self, other):
            raise RuntimeError
        def __hash__(self):
            return id(self)
    adict = {}
    k1 = EqTest()
    k2 = EqTest()
    adict[k1] = 42
    adict[k2] = 43
    print(adict[k1], adict[k2])

Here `k1` is considered the same as `k1` and `k2` is considered the same as `k2`. However, `k1` and `k2` are considered distinct and never compared because they have different hashes.

However, if we were to set `EqTest.__hash__ = lambda self: 42`, we'd get a RuntimeError when we try to set `adict[k2]` because it would get compared for equality with `k1`.

Even if `__eq__` works, we can get some interesting behaviors. For example, when using multiple instances of `float('nan')` as keys.

> Using a str subclass in the test is a great idea, and you've created a truly minimal one.  It would probably be good to *also* test with a non-string, like 3 or 42.0.  I can't imagine this affecting things (unless you missed an eager lookdict demotion somewhere), but it would be good to have that path documented against regression.

I also tested a custom class that compares equal to strings. Other than being much slower, there weren't any significant differences. I also did some checks with int key lookups, which obviously fail with KeyError. They did not make the performance worse for the subsequent str lookups.

I will try to make a proper test tomorrow.
Date User Action Args
2021-01-30 21:28:47h.venevsetrecipients: + h.venev, benjamin.peterson, Mark.Shannon, Jim.Jewett, serhiy.storchaka, vaultah
2021-01-30 21:28:47h.venevsetmessageid: <>
2021-01-30 21:28:47h.venevlinkissue24275 messages
2021-01-30 21:28:47h.venevcreate