Author terry.reedy
Recipients LambertDW, eli.bendersky, georg.brandl, ggenellina, gjb1002, hagna, janpf, jimjjewett, mrotondo, pitrou, r.david.murray, rtvd, sjmachin, terry.reedy, tim.peters, vbr
Date 2010-07-06.23:18:21
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Issue 2986: difflib.SequenceMatcher is partly broken
Developed with input from Eli Bendersky, who will write patchfile(s) for whichever change option is chosen.]

Summary: difflib.SeqeunceMatcher was developed, documented, and originally operated as "a flexible class for comparing pairs of sequences of any [hashable] type". An "experimental" heuristic was added in 2.3a1 to speed up its application to sequences of code lines, which are selected from an unbounded set of possibilities. As explained below, this heuristic partly to completely disables SequenceMatcher for realistic-length sequences from a small finite alphabet. The regression is easy to fix. The docs were never changed to reflect the effect of the heuristic, but should be, with whatever additional change is made.

In the commit message for revision 26661, which added the heuristic, Tim Peters wrote "While I like what I've seen of the effects so far, I still consider this experimental.  Please give it a try!" Several people who have tried it discovered the problem with small alphabets and posted to the tracker. Issues #1528074, #1678339. #1678345, and #4622 are now-closed duplicates of #2986. The heuristic needs revision.

Open questions (discussed after the examples): what exactly to do, which versions to do it too, and who will do it.

Some minimal difference examples:

from difflib import SequenceMatcher as SM

# base example
print(SM(None, 'x' + 'y'*199, 'y'*199).ratio())
# should be and is 0.9975 (rounded)

# make 'y' junk
print(SM(lambda c:c=='y', 'x' + 'y'*199, 'y'*199).ratio())
# should be and is 0.0

# Increment b by 1 char
print(SM(None, 'x' + 'y'*199, 'y'*200).ratio())
# should be .995, but now is 0.0 because y is treated as junk

# Reverse a and b, which increments b
print(SM(None, 'y'*199, 'x' + 'y'*199).ratio())
# should be .9975, as before, but now is 0.0 because y is junked

The reason for the bug is the heuristic: if the second sequence is at least 200 items long then any item occurring more than one percent of the time in the second sequence is treated as junk. This was aimed at recurring code lines like 'else:' and 'return', but can be fatal for small alphabets where common items are necessary content.

A more realistic example than the above is comparing DNA gene sequences. Without the heuristic SequenceMatcher.get_opcodes() reports an appropriate sequence of matches and edits and .ratio works as documented and expected.  For 1000/2000/6000 bases, the times on a old Athlon 2800 machine are <1/2/12 seconds. Since 6000 is longer than most genes, this is a realistic and practical use.

With the heuristic, everything is junk and there is only one match, ''=='' augmented by the initial prefix of matching bases. This is followed by one edit: replace the rest of the first sequence with the rest of the second sequence. A much faster way to find the first mismatch would be
   i = 0
   while first[i] == second[i]:
The match ratio, based on the initial matching prefix only, is spuriously low.


1: what change should be make.

Proposed fix: Disentangle the heuristic from the calculation of the internal b2j dict that maps items to indexes in the second sequence b. Only apply the heuristic (or not) afterward.

Version A: Modify the heuristic to only eliminate common items when there are more than, say, 100 items (when len(b2j)> 100 where b2j is first calculated without popularity deletions).

The would leave DNA, protein, and printable ascii+[\n\r\t] sequences alone. On the other hand, realistic sequences of more than 200 code lines should have at least 100 different lines, and so the heuristic should continue to be applied when it (mostly?) 'should' be. This change leaves the API unchanged and does not require a user decision.

Version B: add a parameter to .__init__ to make the heuristic optional. If the default were True ('use it'), then the code would run the same as now (even when bad). With the heuristic turned off, users would be able to get the .ratio they may expect and need. On the other hand, users would have to understand the heuristic to know when and when not to use it. 

Version C: A more radical alternative would be to make one or more of the tuning parameters user settable, with one setting turning it off.

2. What type of issue is this, and what version get changed.

I see the proposal as partial reversion of a change that sometimes causes a regression, in order to fix the regression. Such would usually be called a bugfix. Other tracker reviewers claim this issue is a feature request, not a bugfix. Either way, 3.2 gets the fix. The practical issue is whether at least 2.7(.1) should get the fix, or whether the bug should forever continue in 2.x.

3. Who will make the change.

Eli will write a patch and I will check it. However, Georg Brandel assigned the issue to Tim Peters, with a request for comment, but Tim never responded. Is there an active committer who will grab the issue and do a commit review when a patch is ready?
Date User Action Args
2010-07-06 23:18:25terry.reedysetrecipients: + terry.reedy, tim.peters, georg.brandl, jimjjewett, sjmachin, gjb1002, ggenellina, pitrou, rtvd, vbr, LambertDW, hagna, r.david.murray, eli.bendersky, janpf, mrotondo
2010-07-06 23:18:24terry.reedysetmessageid: <>
2010-07-06 23:18:23terry.reedylinkissue2986 messages
2010-07-06 23:18:21terry.reedycreate