classification
Title: ctypes+callbacks+fork+selinux = crash
Type: crash Stage:
Components: ctypes Versions: Python 3.6, Python 3.2, Python 3.3, Python 3.4, Python 3.5, Python 2.7
process
Status: open Resolution:
Dependencies: Superseder:
Assigned To: Nosy List: arigo, christian.heimes, eryksun
Priority: normal Keywords:

Created on 2015-11-18 06:03 by arigo, last changed 2016-09-03 16:01 by arigo.

Files
File name Uploaded Description Edit
x.py arigo, 2016-09-03 07:44
Messages (4)
msg254831 - (view) Author: Armin Rigo (arigo) * (Python committer) Date: 2015-11-18 06:03
Ctypes uses libffi's `ffi_closure_alloc()`, which has a bug that make existing applications obscurely crash in one situation: if we are running on SELinux, making use of callbacks, and forking.  This is because `ffi_closure_alloc()` will detect that it is running on SELinux and use an alternative way to allocate memory for the callbacks.

It does that because selinux won't let a process mmap() any anonymous read-write-execute memory (at least in some settings; but libffi always uses the workaround if selinux is detected).  The workaround is to create a temporary file and mmap() it twice (at randomly different addresses), once as a read-write mapping and once as a read-execute mapping.  However, the internal structure of libffi requires that this mapping be MAP_SHARED (we can't easily first build the memory content, then write it to the temporary file and mmap() that fixed content in executable memory).

The problem with this is that if the process forks, this memory is shared.  If one of the two processes then frees the callback, the memory becomes garbage in the other process.

The problem was reported a few times at various places already, but not in this bug tracker.  See:

https://sourceware.org/ml/libffi-discuss/2009/msg00320.html

https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=531233

https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=707944

I am adding this issue to Python's bug tracker because, while in theory a libffi issue, it seems that Python is one of the very few libffi users that actually frees callbacks in this way.  I don't have a solution for either libffi or ctypes, though.  My own recommendation would be to stop using ``ffi_closure_alloc()`` and let the application either work (on selinux without deny_execmem) or cleanly trigger an error (on selinux with deny_execmem).

For reference, the issue was reported to CFFI's bug tracker about python-cryptography 1.0: it uses cffi's version of callbacks, whose implementation is close to ctypes', except not using ``ffi_closure_alloc()`` and so hitting the original selinux error instead of a crash.  The file https://bitbucket.org/cffi/cffi/raw/default/c/malloc_closure.h inside CFFI comes from an older version of ctypes which (by chance in this case) does not call ``ffi_closure_alloc()``.
msg274288 - (view) Author: Armin Rigo (arigo) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-03 07:44
Attached trivial example.  This gives for me a bus error when run with selinux (actually tested by changing the "return 0;" to "return 1;" in selinux_enabled_check() file Modules/_ctypes/libffi/src/closures.c).

If you comment out any of the two do_stuff() calls, everything works fine.
msg274290 - (view) Author: Christian Heimes (christian.heimes) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-03 10:07
Thanks Armin,

I didn't know that your reported the bug in bugs.python.org until today. Last year Armin and I spent a good amount of time to analyse the situation. Armin was able to come up with a different callback implementation for cffi that that does not use W/X memory mappings.

The problem affects mod_wsgi applications on SELinux systems (Fedora, CentOS, RHEL). For security reasons SELinux prevents Apache HTTPD to have writeable and executable memory pages. FFI callbacks with dynamic closures either require the fd workaround (which is buggy) or the application segfaults.

https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1277224
https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1337141
https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1249685
msg274304 - (view) Author: Armin Rigo (arigo) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-03 16:01
For completeness:

* the crasher I attached gets a bus error even before calling
  ffi_closure_free().  At that point, only ffi_closure_alloc() has been
  called---in both parent and child.

* stricly speaking, cffi is not fixed: it has the same problem when
  using callbacks like ctypes.  What Christian talks about is an 
  alternative API that we came up with.  It requires the user code to be
  slightly different, and is only available if using a C compiler is
  acceptable; it is not available in the ctypes-like mode.
History
Date User Action Args
2016-09-03 16:01:45arigosetmessages: + msg274304
2016-09-03 10:07:28christian.heimessetmessages: + msg274290
2016-09-03 09:55:09christian.heimessetnosy: + christian.heimes
2016-09-03 07:45:16arigosetversions: + Python 2.7, Python 3.2, Python 3.3, Python 3.4, Python 3.5, Python 3.6
2016-09-03 07:44:42arigosetfiles: + x.py

messages: + msg274288
2015-11-18 09:28:50eryksunsetnosy: + eryksun
2015-11-18 06:03:04arigocreate