--- /dev/null Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/Modules/_decimal/libmpdec/literature/bignum.txt Sat Mar 10 18:12:20 2012 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+
+
+Bignum support (Fast Number Theoretic Transform or FNT):
+========================================================
+
+Bignum arithmetic in libmpdec uses the scheme for fast convolution
+of integer sequences from:
+
+J. M. Pollard: The fast Fourier transform in a finite field
+http://www.ams.org/journals/mcom/1971-25-114/S0025-5718-1971-0301966-0/home.html
+
+
+The transform in a finite field can be used for convolution in the same
+way as the Fourier Transform. The main advantages of the Number Theoretic
+Transform are that it is both exact and very memory efficient.
+
+
+Convolution in pseudo-code:
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ fnt_convolute(a, b):
+ x = fnt(a) # forward transform of a
+ y = fnt(b) # forward transform of b
+ z = pairwise multiply x[i] and y[i]
+ result = inv_fnt(z) # backward transform of z.
+
+
+Extending the maximum transform length (Chinese Remainder Theorem):
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+The maximum transform length is quite limited when using a single
+prime field. However, it is possible to use multiple primes and
+recover the result using the Chinese Remainder Theorem.
+
+
+Multiplication in pseudo-code:
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+ _mpd_fntmul(u, v):
+ c1 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P1) # convolute modulo prime1
+ c2 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P2) # convolute modulo prime2
+ c3 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P3) # convolute modulo prime3
+ result = crt3(c1, c2, c3) # Chinese Remainder Theorem
+
+
+Optimized transform functions:
+------------------------------
+
+There are three different fnt() functions:
+
+ std_fnt: "standard" decimation in frequency transform for array lengths
+ of 2**n. Performs well up to 1024 words.
+
+ sixstep: Cache-friendly algorithm for array lengths of 2**n. Outperforms
+ std_fnt for large arrays.
+
+ fourstep: Algorithm for array lengths of 3 * 2**n. Also cache friendly
+ in large parts.
+
+
+List of bignum-only files:
+--------------------------
+
+Functions from these files are only used in _mpd_fntmul().
+
+ umodarith.h -> fast low level routines for unsigned modular arithmetic
+ numbertheory.c -> routines for setting up the FNT
+ difradix2.c -> decimation in frequency transform, used as the
+ "base case" by the following three files:
+
+ fnt.c -> standard transform for smaller arrays
+ sixstep.c -> transform large arrays of length 2**n
+ fourstep.c -> transform arrays of length 3 * 2**n
+
+ convolute.c -> do the actual fast convolution, using one of
+ the three transform functions.
+ transpose.c -> transpositions needed for the sixstep algorithm.
+ crt.c -> Chinese Remainder Theorem: use information from three
+ transforms modulo three different primes to get the
+ final result.
+
+
+