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Unified Diff: Doc/library/idle.rst

Issue 5066: IDLE documentation for Unix obsolete/incorrect
Patch Set: Created 7 years, 2 months ago
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--- a/Doc/library/idle.rst Sat Nov 24 20:42:59 2012 +0100
+++ b/Doc/library/idle.rst Tue Nov 27 00:04:21 2012 -0500
@@ -16,70 +16,82 @@
* coded in 100% pure Python, using the :mod:`tkinter` GUI toolkit
-* cross-platform: works on Windows and Unix
+* cross-platform: works on Windows, Unix, and OS X
* multi-window text editor with multiple undo, Python colorizing and many other
features, e.g. smart indent and call tips
* Python shell window (a.k.a. interactive interpreter)
-* debugger (not complete, but you can set breakpoints, view and step)
+* debugger (not complete, but you can set breakpoints, view and step)
Menus
-----
+IDLE has two window types the Shell window and the Editor window. It is
+possible to have multiple editor windows simultaneously. IDLE's
+menus dynamically change based on which window is currently selected. Each menu
+documented below indicates which window type it is associated with. Click on
+the dotted line at the top of a menu to "tear it off": a separate window
+containing the menu is created (for Unix and Windows only).
-File menu
-^^^^^^^^^
+File menu (Shell and Editor)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
New window
- create a new editing window
+ Create a new editing window
Open...
- open an existing file
+ Open an existing file
Open module...
- open an existing module (searches sys.path)
+ Open an existing module (searches sys.path)
+
+Recent Files
+ Open a list of recent files
Class browser
- show classes and methods in current file
+ Show classes and methods in current file
Path browser
- show sys.path directories, modules, classes and methods
+ Show sys.path directories, modules, classes, and methods
.. index::
single: Class browser
single: Path browser
Save
- save current window to the associated file (unsaved windows have a \* before and
- after the window title)
+ Save current window to the associated file (unsaved windows have a
+ \* before and after the window title)
Save As...
- save current window to new file, which becomes the associated file
+ Save current window to new file, which becomes the associated file
Save Copy As...
- save current window to different file without changing the associated file
+ Save current window to different file without changing the associated file
+
+Print Window
+ Print the current window
Close
- close current window (asks to save if unsaved)
+ Close current window (asks to save if unsaved)
Exit
- close all windows and quit IDLE (asks to save if unsaved)
+ Close all windows and quit IDLE (asks to save if unsaved)
-Edit menu
-^^^^^^^^^
+Edit menu (Shell and Editor)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Undo
- Undo last change to current window (max 1000 changes)
+ Undo last change to current window (a maximum of 1000 changes may be undone)
Redo
Redo last undone change to current window
Cut
- Copy selection into system-wide clipboard; then delete selection
+ Copy selection into system-wide clipboard; then delete the selection
Copy
Copy selection into system-wide clipboard
@@ -108,11 +120,30 @@
Go to line
Ask for a line number and show that line
+Expand word
+ Expand the word you have typed to match another word in the same buffer;
+ repeat to get a different expansion
+
+Show call tip
+ After an unclosed parenthesis for a function, open a small window with
+ function parameter hints
+
+Show surrounding parens
+ Highlight the surrounding parenthesis
+
+Show Completions
+ Open a scroll window allowing selection keywords and attributes. See
+ Completions below.
+
+
+Format menu (only in Editor window)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
Indent region
- Shift selected lines right 4 spaces
+ Shift selected lines right by the indent width (default 4 spaces)
Dedent region
- Shift selected lines left 4 spaces
+ Shift selected lines left by the indent width (default 4 spaces)
Comment out region
Insert ## in front of selected lines
@@ -121,67 +152,121 @@
Remove leading # or ## from selected lines
Tabify region
- Turns *leading* stretches of spaces into tabs
+ Turns *leading* stretches of spaces into tabs. (Note: We recommend using
+ 4 space blocks to indent Python code.)
Untabify region
Turn *all* tabs into the right number of spaces
-Expand word
- Expand the word you have typed to match another word in the same buffer; repeat
- to get a different expansion
+Toggle tabs
+ Open a dialog to switch between indenting with spaces and tabs
ezio.melotti 2012/11/27 21:59:58 Shouldn't the note about using spaces instead of t
+
+New Indent Width
+ Open a dialog to switch between indenting with spaces and tabs. The
+ accepted default by the Python community is 4 spaces.
Format Paragraph
- Reformat the current blank-line-separated paragraph
+ Reformat the current blank-line-separated paragraph. All lines in the
+ paragraph will be formatted to less than 80 columns.
-Import module
- Import or reload the current module
-
-Run script
- Execute the current file in the __main__ namespace
+Strip trailing whitespace
+ Removes any space characters after the end of the last non-space character
.. index::
single: Import module
single: Run script
-Windows menu
-^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Run menu (only in Editor window)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-Zoom Height
- toggles the window between normal size (24x80) and maximum height.
+Python Shell
+ Open or wake up the Python Shell window
-The rest of this menu lists the names of all open windows; select one to bring
-it to the foreground (deiconifying it if necessary).
+Check module
+ Checks the syntax of the current module which is the code loaded in the
+ Editor window. If the code has not been saved IDLE will prompt the user
+ to save the code.
+Run module
+ First it performs a restart on the shell making sure the environment is
+ clean then executes the current file in the __main__ namespace.
-Debug menu
-^^^^^^^^^^
+Shell menu (only in Shell window)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-* in the Python Shell window only
+View Last Restart
+ Scrolls the shell window to the last Shell restart
+
+Restart Shell
+ Restarts the Python interpreter with a fresh environment
+
+Debug menu (only in Shell window)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Go to file/line
Look around the insert point for a filename and line number, open the file,
and show the line. Useful to view the source lines referenced in an
- exception traceback.
+ exception traceback. Available in the context menu of the Shell window.
-Debugger
- Run commands in the shell under the debugger.
+Debugger (toggle) (not complete consider it experimental)
+ Run commands in the shell under the debugger
Stack viewer
- Show the stack traceback of the last exception.
+ Show the stack traceback of the last exception
Auto-open Stack Viewer
- Open stack viewer on traceback.
+ Toggle automatically opening the stack viewer on a traceback
.. index::
single: stack viewer
single: debugger
+Options menu (Shell and Editor)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-Edit context menu
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Configure IDLE
+ Open a configuration dialog. Fonts, indentation, keybindings, and color
+ themes may be altered. Startup Preferences may be set, and additional
+ help sources can be specified.
-* Right-click in Edit window (Control-click on OS X)
+Code Context (toggle)(only in Editor Window)
+ Open a pane at the top of the edit window which shows the block context
+ of the section of code which is scrolling off the top of the window. This
+ is not present in the Shell window only the Editor window.
+
+Windows menu (Shell and Editor)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Zoom Height
+ Toggles the window between normal size (40x80 initial setting) and maximum
+ height. The initial size is in the Configure IDLE dialog under the general
+ tab.
+
+The rest of this menu lists the names of all open windows; select one to bring
+it to the foreground (deiconifying it if necessary).
+
+Help menu (Shell and Editor)
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+About IDLE
+ Version, copyright, license, credits
+
+IDLE Help
+ Display a help file for IDLE detailing the menu options, basic editing and
+ navigation, and other tips.
+
+Python Docs
+ Access local Python documentation, if installed. Or will start a web browser
+ and open docs.python.org showing the latest Python documentation.
+
+Additional help sources may be added here with the Configure IDLE dialog under
+the General tab.
+
+Editor Window context menu
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+* Right-click in Editor window (Control-click on OS X)
Cut
Copy selection into system-wide clipboard; then delete selection
@@ -207,8 +292,8 @@
single: breakpoints
-Shell context menu
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Shell Window context menu
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
* Right-click in Python Shell window (Control-click on OS X)
@@ -225,19 +310,37 @@
Same as in Debug menu.
-Basic editing and navigation
-----------------------------
+Editing and navigation
+----------------------
* :kbd:`Backspace` deletes to the left; :kbd:`Del` deletes to the right
+* :kbd:`C-Backspace` delete word left; :kbd:`C-Del` delete word to the right
+
* Arrow keys and :kbd:`Page Up`/:kbd:`Page Down` to move around
+* :kbd:`C-LeftArrow` and :kbd:`C-RightArrow` moves by words in a strange but
+ useful way
+
* :kbd:`Home`/:kbd:`End` go to begin/end of line
* :kbd:`C-Home`/:kbd:`C-End` go to begin/end of file
-* Some :program:`Emacs` bindings may also work, including :kbd:`C-B`,
- :kbd:`C-P`, :kbd:`C-A`, :kbd:`C-E`, :kbd:`C-D`, :kbd:`C-L`
+* Some useful :program:`Emacs` bindings are inherited from TCL/Tk:
+ * :kbd:`C-a` beginning of line
+ * :kbd:`C-e` end of line
+ * :kbd:`C-k` kill line (but doesn't put it in clipboard)
+ * :kbd:`C-l` center window around the insertion point
+ * :kbd:`C-b` go backwards one character without deleting (usually you can
+ also use the cursor key for this)
+ * :kbd:`C-f` go forward one character without deleting (usually you can
+ also use the cursor key for this)
+ * :kbd:`C-p` go up one line (usually you can also use the cursor key for
+ this)
+ * :kbd:`C-d` delete next character
ezio.melotti 2012/11/27 21:59:58 Are these rendered correctly? Isn't an empty line
+
+Standard Windows bindings (like :kbd:`C-c` to copy and :kbd:`C-v` to paste)
+may work. Keybindings are selected in the Configure IDLE dialog.
Automatic indentation
@@ -246,27 +349,76 @@
After a block-opening statement, the next line is indented by 4 spaces (in the
Python Shell window by one tab). After certain keywords (break, return etc.)
the next line is dedented. In leading indentation, :kbd:`Backspace` deletes up
-to 4 spaces if they are there. :kbd:`Tab` inserts 1-4 spaces (in the Python
-Shell window one tab). See also the indent/dedent region commands in the edit
-menu.
+to 4 spaces if they are there. :kbd:`Tab` inserts spaces (in the Python
+Shell window one tab), number depends on Indent width. (N.B. Currently tabs
+are restricted to four spaces due to TCL/Tk issues.)
ezio.melotti 2012/11/27 21:59:58 s/issues/limitations/?
+See also the indent/dedent region commands in the edit menu.
+
+Completions
+^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Completions are supplied for functions, classes, and attributes of classes,
+both built-in and user-defined. Completions are also provided for
+filenames.
+
+The AutoCompleteWindow (ACW) will open after a predefined delay (default is
+two seconds) after a '.' or (in a string) an os.sep is typed. If after one
+of those characters (plus zero or more other characters) you type a tab
+the ACW will open immediately if a possible continuation is found.
+
+If there is only one possible completion for the characters entered, a
+:kbd:`tab` will supply that completion without opening the ACW.
+
+'Show Completions' will force open a completions window, by default the
+:kbd:`C-space` will open a completions window. In an empty
+string, this will contain the files in the current directory. On a
+blank line, it will contain the built-in and user-defined functions and
+classes in the current name spaces, plus any modules imported. If some
+characters have been entered, the ACW will attempt to be more specific.
+
+If a string of characters is typed, the ACW selection will jump to the
+entry most closely matching those characters. Entering a :kbd:`tab` will
+cause the longest non-ambiguous match to be entered in the Editor window or
+Shell. Two :kbd:`tab` in a row will supply the current ACW selection, as
+will return or a double click. Cursor keys, Page Up/Down, mouse selection,
+and the scroll wheel all operate on the ACW.
+
+'Hidden' attributes can be accessed by typing the beginning of hidden
+name after a '.'. e.g. '_'. This allows access to modules with
+'__all__' set, or to class-private attributes.
+
+Completions and the 'Expand Word' facility can save a lot of typing!
+
+Completions are currently limited to those in the namespaces. Names in
+an Editor window which are not via __main__ or sys.modules will not be
+found. Run the module once with your imports to correct this situation.
+Note that IDLE itself places quite a few modules in sys.modules, so
+much can be found by default, e.g. the re module.
+
+If you don't like the ACW popping up unbidden, simply make the delay
+longer or disable the extension. Or another option is the delay could
+be set to zero. Another alternative to preventing ACW popups is to
+disable the call tips extension.
Python Shell window
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-* :kbd:`C-C` interrupts executing command
+* :kbd:`C-c` interrupts executing command
-* :kbd:`C-D` sends end-of-file; closes window if typed at a ``>>>`` prompt
+* :kbd:`C-d` sends end-of-file; closes window if typed at a ``>>>`` prompt
+ (this is :kbd:`C-z` on Windows).
-* :kbd:`Alt-p` retrieves previous command matching what you have typed
+* :kbd:`Alt-/` (Expand word) is also useful to reduce typing
-* :kbd:`Alt-n` retrieves next
+ Command history
-* :kbd:`Return` while on any previous command retrieves that command
+ * :kbd:`Alt-p` retrieves previous command matching what you have typed. On
+ OS X use :kbd:`C-p`.
-* :kbd:`Alt-/` (Expand word) is also useful here
+ * :kbd:`Alt-n` retrieves next. On OS X use :kbd:`C-n`.
-.. index:: single: indentation
+ * :kbd:`Return` while on any previous command retrieves that command
Syntax colors
@@ -308,17 +460,17 @@
Upon startup with the ``-s`` option, IDLE will execute the file referenced by
the environment variables :envvar:`IDLESTARTUP` or :envvar:`PYTHONSTARTUP`.
-Idle first checks for ``IDLESTARTUP``; if ``IDLESTARTUP`` is present the file
-referenced is run. If ``IDLESTARTUP`` is not present, Idle checks for
+IDLE first checks for ``IDLESTARTUP``; if ``IDLESTARTUP`` is present the file
+referenced is run. If ``IDLESTARTUP`` is not present, IDLE checks for
``PYTHONSTARTUP``. Files referenced by these environment variables are
-convenient places to store functions that are used frequently from the Idle
+convenient places to store functions that are used frequently from the IDLE
shell, or for executing import statements to import common modules.
In addition, ``Tk`` also loads a startup file if it is present. Note that the
Tk file is loaded unconditionally. This additional file is ``.Idle.py`` and is
looked for in the user's home directory. Statements in this file will be
executed in the Tk namespace, so this file is not useful for importing functions
-to be used from Idle's Python shell.
+to be used from IDLE's Python shell.
Command line usage
@@ -349,3 +501,44 @@
the arguments are still available in ``sys.argv``.
+Additional help sources
+-----------------------
+
+All users can access the extensive sources of help, including tutorials,
+available at docs.python.org. Selected URLs can be added or removed from
+the help menu at any time using the Configure IDLE dialog. See the
+IDLE help option in the help menu of IDLE for more information.
+
+
+Other preferences
+-----------------
+
+The font preferences, highlighting, keys, and general preferences can be
+changed via the Configure IDLE menu option. Be sure to note that
+keys can be user defined, IDLE ships with four built in key sets. In
+addition a user can create a custom key set in the Configure IDLE dialog
+under the keys tab.
+
+Extensions
+----------
+
+IDLE contains an extension facility. See the beginning of
+config-extensions.def in the idlelib directory for further information. The
+default extensions are currently:
+
+* FormatParagraph
+
+* AutoExpand
+
+* ZoomHeight
+
+* ScriptBinding
+
+* CallTips
+
+* ParenMatch
+
+* AutoComplete
+
+* CodeContext
+
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