Title: Prepare for splitting LOAD_CONST into several opcodes
Type: enhancement Stage: resolved
Components: Interpreter Core, Library (Lib) Versions: Python 3.11
Status: closed Resolution: fixed
Dependencies: Superseder:
Assigned To: iritkatriel Nosy List: Mark.Shannon, brandtbucher, gvanrossum, iritkatriel, rhettinger, serhiy.storchaka
Priority: normal Keywords: patch

Created on 2021-09-09 14:09 by iritkatriel, last changed 2021-09-15 09:35 by iritkatriel. This issue is now closed.

Pull Requests
URL Status Linked Edit
PR 28258 merged iritkatriel, 2021-09-09 14:20
PR 28262 merged iritkatriel, 2021-09-09 17:24
Messages (12)
msg401485 - (view) Author: Irit Katriel (iritkatriel) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 14:09
This issue is to prepare the code for splitting LOAD_CONST to several opcodes.

There are a number of places in the code where an opcode is compared to LOAD_CONST (such as dis, the compiler, and the peephole optimizer). These need to be refactored to make the query "is this a hasconst opcode", and the value calculation needs to be refactored into a single place, which can later be updated to get the value from places other than co_consts.
msg401501 - (view) Author: Raymond Hettinger (rhettinger) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 17:34
I didn't know this was in the works.  Can you point me to the relevant discussion about why LOAD_CONST would be split?
msg401502 - (view) Author: Irit Katriel (iritkatriel) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 17:36
It's related to this work:
msg401512 - (view) Author: Raymond Hettinger (rhettinger) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 19:15
Thanks for the link.  This is a worthwhile experiment.  However, the potential gains will be hard to come by.

The workload of LOAD_CONST is very small.  After paying for the usual dispatch logic overhead, all it does is an index into a struct member and an incref.  Both the co_consts table and the popular constant objects are already likely to be in the L1 data cache.  

	movslq	%r15d, %rax             ## OpArg fetch, typically a zero code register rename   
	movq	-368(%rbp), %rcx        ## 8-byte Reload to access co_consts
	movq	24(%rcx,%rax,8), %rax   ## The actual indexing operation  (3 cycles)
	incq	(%rax)                  ## The incref  

A specialized opcode for a specific constant like None can 1) eliminate the oparg fetch (likely saving nothing), and 2) eliminate the two sequentially dependent memory access (this is a win):

      ​  movq	__Py_NoneStruct@GOTPCREL(%rip), rax
	incq	(%rax)                  ## The incref

Any more general opcode for loading small ints would still need the oparg fetch and the incref.  To win, it would need to convert the oparg into an int more efficiently than the two movq steps.  If the small int table is in a fixed location (not per-subinterpreter), then you can save 2 cycles with the simpler address computation:

	movslq	%r15d, %rax             ## OpArg fetch, typically a zero code register rename 
	movq	__Py_SmallInt@GOTPCREL(%rip), %rcx        ## Find an array of ints
	movq	(%rcx,%rax,8), %rax     ## Cheaper address computation takes 1 cycle
	incq	(%rax)                  ## The incref 

The 2 cycle win (intel-only) will be partially offset by the additional pressure on the L1 data cache.  Right now, the co_consts is almost certainly in cache, holding only the constants that actually get used (at a rate of 8 per cache line).  Accesses into a small_int array will push other data out of L1.

IIRC, Serhiy already experimented with a LOAD_NONE opcode and couldn't get a measurable win.
msg401513 - (view) Author: Irit Katriel (iritkatriel) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 19:20
I’m not sure we’re hoping this to be faster, just reduce the code object size and not be slower. (Smaller code object could be faster to unmarshal).
msg401514 - (view) Author: Raymond Hettinger (rhettinger) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-09 19:31
Idea for improving unmarshalling speed:  Since reading PYCs is I/O bound, it may be worthwhile to compress them.  When the idea came up previously, Antoine suggested choosing an algorithm with the fastest possible decompression speed (iirc, it was lzma4 at the time).  This should be an easy optimization that doesn't require changing the rest of the runtime.
msg401539 - (view) Author: Guido van Rossum (gvanrossum) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-10 00:34
Raymond, I am super grateful that you are showing us the assembly language. That's the kind of thing we need to do more of if we want to be successful. (In this case I'm not surprised by the outcome, but I have never studied x86 assembly and this was a nice explanation.)

Regarding speeding up marshal, I am not at all convinced that this is still I/O bound. Raymond, do you have data about this? In my own informal experiments I believe the main cost I found was (a) stat() operations, and (b) the allocation and initialization of a large number of objects. In my (limited) understanding, "freezing" modules (like in bpo-45020) is mostly a win because it avoids stat() operations (and listdir(), too). But it would be nice to do a detailed experiment to get real facts here.
msg401559 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-10 07:45
From my experience, the largest cost in importing module (after I/O) is for creating classes, especially classes with complex creation code: enums and dataclasses (and namedtuples in past, but they were significanly optimized since).

For I/O, would using zipimport or any other container help? It should reduce the number of stats and opens and allow to use compression.

As for increasing performance of demarshallization, it is already very fast (all is read from memory buffers, all repeated objects are cached). Switching to "wordcode" (32- or 64- bit instructions) and aligning all objects at the boundary of 4-8 bytes can marginally increase decoding speed, but it needs testing. Also more optimal using of references (like pickletools.optimize()) can reduce unmarshalling time at the cost of increasing marshalling time and memory consumption. It can also help with deterministic marshalling.
msg401562 - (view) Author: Irit Katriel (iritkatriel) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-10 08:13
> (b) the allocation and initialization of a large number of objects

Yes, when I profiled import GC showed up as 20-30%.
msg401609 - (view) Author: Guido van Rossum (gvanrossum) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-10 19:48
We're not (yet) trying to optimize the code being executed (we should perhaps add an issue about class creation to

I agree that marshal is very fast already; I doubt the extra cost of wordcode would pay off since it would increase the size. This could be tested but it would be a big experiment.

I'm not sure that compression will really help, since a typical decompressor delivers its output in some memory buffer. But this needs to be tested, and it might be a simpler experiment.

I'm pretty sure zipimport will improve things -- the main problem with it (as always) is that not all tooling understands it, since resource loading is different.
msg401763 - (view) Author: Mark Shannon (Mark.Shannon) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-14 08:53
New changeset c2f1e953371c25f6c42b599ba3d8797effbb503e by Irit Katriel in branch 'main':
bpo-45152: Add HAS_CONST macro and get_const_value() function and use… (#28262)
msg401817 - (view) Author: Irit Katriel (iritkatriel) * (Python committer) Date: 2021-09-15 09:14
New changeset 40d2ac92f9a28a486156dafdbb613016bb1f6b98 by Irit Katriel in branch 'main':
bpo-45152: refactor the dis module to make handling of hasconst opcodes more generic (GH-28258)
Date User Action Args
2021-09-15 09:35:25iritkatrielsetstatus: open -> closed
resolution: fixed
stage: patch review -> resolved
2021-09-15 09:14:30iritkatrielsetmessages: + msg401817
2021-09-14 08:53:36Mark.Shannonsetnosy: + Mark.Shannon
messages: + msg401763
2021-09-10 20:58:46brandtbuchersetnosy: + brandtbucher
2021-09-10 19:48:32gvanrossumsetmessages: + msg401609
2021-09-10 08:13:48iritkatrielsetmessages: + msg401562
2021-09-10 07:45:36serhiy.storchakasetmessages: + msg401559
2021-09-10 00:34:35gvanrossumsetmessages: + msg401539
2021-09-09 19:31:51rhettingersetmessages: + msg401514
2021-09-09 19:20:05iritkatrielsetmessages: + msg401513
2021-09-09 19:15:09rhettingersetnosy: + serhiy.storchaka
messages: + msg401512
2021-09-09 17:36:43iritkatrielsetmessages: + msg401502
2021-09-09 17:34:07rhettingersetnosy: + rhettinger
messages: + msg401501
2021-09-09 17:24:26iritkatrielsetpull_requests: + pull_request26682
2021-09-09 14:20:10iritkatrielsetkeywords: + patch
stage: patch review
pull_requests: + pull_request26678
2021-09-09 14:10:32iritkatrielsetnosy: + gvanrossum
2021-09-09 14:09:24iritkatrielcreate