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Title: Make f'' strings faster than .format: BUILD_STRING opcode?
Type: performance Stage: resolved
Components: Interpreter Core Versions: Python 3.6
Status: closed Resolution: fixed
Dependencies: Superseder:
Assigned To: serhiy.storchaka Nosy List: Demur Rumed, eric.smith, mjpieters, python-dev, rhettinger, serhiy.storchaka, ztane
Priority: normal Keywords: patch

Created on 2016-05-21 19:18 by ztane, last changed 2022-04-11 14:58 by admin. This issue is now closed.

File name Uploaded Description Edit
fstrtup.patch Demur Rumed, 2016-07-13 01:10 review
fstrtup2.patch Demur Rumed, 2016-07-13 13:14 BINARY_ADD review
fstring_build_string.patch serhiy.storchaka, 2016-07-13 20:11 review
fstring_build_string_2.patch serhiy.storchaka, 2016-07-15 19:41 review
Messages (32)
msg266016 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-05-21 19:18
I benchmarked some f'' strings against .format, and surprisingly f'' was slower than .format in about all the simple cases I could think of. I guess this is because f'' strings implicitly use `''.join([])`.

The byte code for f'foo is {foo}' currently is

  1           0 LOAD_CONST               1 ('')
              3 LOAD_ATTR                0 (join)
              6 LOAD_CONST               2 ('foo is ')
              9 LOAD_GLOBAL              1 (foo)
             12 FORMAT_VALUE             0
             15 BUILD_LIST               2
             18 CALL_FUNCTION            1 (1 positional, 0 keyword pair)

It was mentioned here but since I came up with the idea when inspecting this, I'd propose again here that a new opcode be added for f'' strings - BUILD_STRING n, with which f'foo is {foo}' could be compiled to 

              0 LOAD_CONST               2 ('foo is ')
              3 LOAD_GLOBAL              1 (foo)
              6 FORMAT_VALUE             0
              9 BUILD_STRING             2

instead. Internally this wouldn't even need to call `PyUnicode_Join`, but instead `seplen == 0` case could be refactored into a separate function. Not only with this is it possible to know the length of the string, but also the number of string components are already known, so it'd be possible to build a tuple fast from the values on stack.

And that way people doing micro benchmarks would find out that the new Python 3.6 feature would not only look nice but also be a way to write better-performing code.
msg266021 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-05-21 20:15
I considered doing this, and have some of it implemented. I discussed it with Larry Hastings and Mark Shannon at PyCon Ireland, and we decided to just use ''.format() and the new FORMAT_VALUE opcode, since that was the simplest way to fix the previous implementation's faults. That doesn't mean I've given up on improving it, of course.

The speed increase would indeed come from avoiding the LOAD_ATTR lookup, not building list, and not calling a function.

I'm curious about your benchmarks. Can you share them? I've found f-strings to be typically faster than .format(). But I can't say my benchmarks are particularly awesome.
msg266031 - (view) Author: Martijn Pieters (mjpieters) * Date: 2016-05-21 22:16
The catalyst for this question was a Stack Overflow question I answered:

Compared the `str.format()` the BUILD_LIST is the bottleneck here; dropping the LOAD_ATTR and CALL_FUNCTION opcodes are nice bonuses.
msg270083 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-10 12:52
I am not an expert on writing new opcodes to CPython (having never done it, don't know where to change the disassembler and such, how to make compiler generate them properly and such), but I'd be glad to help with testing, timing and writing the possible joiner algorithm for it, to help it make into Python 3.6.
msg270095 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-10 16:08
For comparison:

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2" -- "f'X is {x}'"
1000000 loops, best of 3: 1.04 usec per loop

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2; j = ''.join" -- "j(['X is ', f'{x}'])"
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.93 usec per loop

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2" -- "'X is {}'.format(x)"
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.808 usec per loop

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2; f = 'X is {}'.format" -- "f(x)"
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.748 usec per loop

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2" -- "'X is %s' % (x,)"
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.467 usec per loop
msg270135 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-10 21:35
And the expected performance for optimal `f'X is {x}'` code would be *faster* than `"'X is %s' % (x,)"` which still needs to interpret the string at runtime, and build a proper tuple object on stack.
msg270136 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-10 22:18
> And the expected performance for optimal `f'X is {x}'` code would 
> be *faster* than `"'X is %s' % (x,)"` which still needs to 
> interpret the string at runtime, and build a proper tuple object 
> on stack.

That's not necessarily true. The f-string version still needs to invoke the .format() method on the object, instead of only working for a handful of hard-coded types.

I'm not saying there aren't optimization opportunities, but it may be that %-formatting is always faster.
msg270167 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-11 09:25
Ah so it seems. Somehow I thought __format__ was slotted, but that is not the case and it needs to be looked up, and what is worse, of course a tuple needs to be built as well. 

Oh well, at least it should be quite minimal to make it be faster than `f(x)` there, which necessarily has one extra bound method call and interpretation of format string as the overhead, so there's minimally at least 30 % performance boost to achieve.
msg270280 - (view) Author: Philip Dubé (Demur Rumed) * Date: 2016-07-13 01:03
The simplest perf fix is to first use BUILD_TUPLE instead of BUILD_LIST

timeit 'x=1;(x,x,x)'
0.36 usec per loop

timeit 'x=1;[x,x,x]'
0.425 usec per loop

Introducing a new opcode BUILD_STRING to inline PyTuple_New + PyUnicode_Join to replace BUILD_TUPLE + CALL_FUNCTION should benchmark against BUILD_TUPLE version, not BUILD_LIST + CALL_FUNCTION
msg270281 - (view) Author: Philip Dubé (Demur Rumed) * Date: 2016-07-13 01:10
Benchmarked f'X is {x}' with BUILD_TUPLE change:

Before: 6.62 usec per loop
After: 6.33 usec per loop

f'X is {x} {x+2} {x+3}'
Before: 15.1 usec per loop
After: 14.7 usec per loop

Attached patch
msg270308 - (view) Author: Philip Dubé (Demur Rumed) * Date: 2016-07-13 13:14
fstrtup2.patch is a bit more of an involved optimization for when we are joining 2 strings. Instead it emits BINARY_ADD. This may be considered too 'niche' since it only triggers when the substitution occurs at the start or end of a string & there is only one substitution

However, it reduces the "X is {x}" testcase on my machine to 4.9 usec

Interesting thing, to consider ceiling of what we can do,

Prefixing ./python -m timeit -s "x=1"
'%s'%x 1.08 usec
'%s'%(x,) 2.04 usec
str(x) 2.9 usec
f'{x}' 3.65 usec

So we should not be aiming to compete with %. It may be worthy to convert the code to generate "x is {}".format calls tho
msg270312 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-13 14:44
Yet the test cases just prove what is so expensive there: name lookups (global name `str`; looking up `join` on a string instance); building a tuple (for function arguments) is expensive as well. Of course `__format__` will be costly as well as it is not a slot-method, needs to build a new string etc. 

However for strings, 'foo'.format() already returns the instance itself, so if you were formatting other strings into strings there are cheap shortcuts available to even overtake 

    a = 'Hello'
    b = 'World'
    '%s %s' % (a, b)

for fast string templates, namely, make FORMAT_VALUE without args return the original if `PyUnicode_CheckExact` and no arguments, don't need to build a tuple to join it.
msg270319 - (view) Author: Philip Dubé (Demur Rumed) * Date: 2016-07-13 15:47
I'm not understanding your message. We don't call FORMAT_VALUE on constant strings in f"x is {x}" & FORMAT_VALUE doesn't take an argument. Are you saying in a hypothetical FORMAT_VALUE where BUILD_STRING takes a set of objects & applies formatting to them, thus allowing us to remove FORMAT_VALUE as an opcode? That seems like I'm imposing my own internal thoughts on what you're saying, but when I don't understand what someone's saying I'm prone to raise my own imaginations. Also note that f'{x}' compiles to 'LOAD X, FORMAT_VALUE' so there is no join lookup in the last benchmarks I posted

Nitpick about fstrtup2: it assumes compiler_joined_str's len is at least 2. Either an assert should be added or the last if-else should be `else if (len == 1)` instead of a plain `else`
msg270333 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-13 18:09
Yet one case for comparison (with msg270095):

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2" -- 'f"X is {x!s}"'
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.625 usec per loop

Seems f'{x!s}' is the fastest way to stringify a value. Thus there is an opportunity to speed up default formatting by special casing PyObject_Format() for most popular types (str and int).
msg270339 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-13 20:11
Proposed patch adds the BUILD_STRING opcode and speeds up PyObject_Format() in common cases. It makes f-strings the fastest method for simple formatting.

$ ./python -m timeit -s "x = 2" -- 'f"X is {x}"'
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.347 usec per loop
msg270344 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-13 20:40
It seems Eric has done some special casing for strings already in FORMAT_VALUE. Here are the results from my computer after applying Demur's patch for concatenating *strings*.

    python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 'a'" -- '"X is %s" % x'
    1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.187 usec per loop
                                                                            python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 'a'" -- 'f"X is {x}"' 
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.0972 usec per loop

But then as more components are added, it starts to slow down rapidly:

    python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 'a'" -- 'f"X is {x}a"'   
    1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.191 usec per loop

    python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 'a'" -- '"X is %sa" % x'
    1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.216 usec per loop

Of course there is also the matter of string conversion vs "look up __format__":

    python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 1" -- 'f"X is {x}"'
    1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.349 usec per loop

    python3.6 -m timeit -s "x = 1" -- 'f"X is {x!s}"'
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.168 usec per loop

For FORMAT_VALUE opcode already has a special case for the latter. 

However I'd too say that switch/case for the some fastest builtin types in `PyObject_Format` as Eric has intended to do with Unicode in PyObject_Format (str, int, float), as those are commonly used to build strings such as text templates, text-like protocols like emails, HTTP protocol headers and such.

For others the speed-up wouldn't really matter either way: either PyObject_Format would fall back to object.__format__ (for example functions) - no one really cares about efficiency when doing such debug dumps - if you cared, you'd not do them at all; or they'd have complex representations (say, lists, dictionaries) - and their use again would mostly be that of debug dumps; or they'd have `__format__` written in Python and that'd be dwarfed by anything so far.
msg270347 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-13 22:04
Thanks Serhiy, I was writing my comment for a long time, and only now noticed that you'd already posted the patch.

Indeed, it seems that not only is this the fastest method, it might also be the fastest string concatenation method in the history of Python. I did some comparison with 8-bit strings in Python 2, doing the equivalent of 



    domain = ''
    lang = 'en'
    path = 'some/really/long/path/'

and the results look quite favourable: 0.151 µs with your patch; 0.250ish for the second fastest method in Python 3.6 (''.join(tuple))

And the fastest method in Python 2 is a tie between concatenating with + or ''.join with bound method reference; both of them take 0.203 µs on Python 2.7 with 8-bit strings and about 0.245 - 0.255 µs if everything is Unicode.
msg270469 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-15 07:03
Serhiy suggested this in Rietveld:

> For additional optimization we can pack all constant strings, parsed formats and
> flags in one constant object and use the single LOAD_CONST. But this requires
> much larger changes (perhaps including changing the marshal format), and the
> benefit may be small. Maybe we'll get to it eventually, if this approach proves
> efficient enough.

I was thinking about this and got an idea on how to do this too, without changes to marshal. Essentially, let TOS be a tuple of 

    (flags, str1, str2, str3, str4, str5, str6, str7, str8, str9...)

flags would be n bytes for n-part format string; each byte would tell whether:

- the next component is a constant string (bit 0 = 0) from the tuple
- the next component is an interpolated value (bit 0 = 1)
   - and whether it has !s, !r, !a or default conversions (bits 1-2)
   - and whether it has extra argument to format() or not (bit 3) (argument is the next string from the tuple)

thus that tuple for

    a, b = 'Hello', 'World!'
    f'{a!s} {b:10}!'

would be

    (b'\x03\x00\x05\x00', ' ', '10', '!')

and the opcodes would be

    LOAD_FAST (b)
    LOAD_FAST (a)
    LOAD_CONST (0) (the tuple)
msg270505 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-15 19:41
Nice idea, Antti. But I tried to implement it, and surprisingly found that this approach is slower than FORMAT_VALUE + BUILD_STRING. At least for this particular example. Perhaps because we can't use a stack and need to allocate a new tuple containing literal strings and formatted values for PyUnicode_Join(). Not mentioning that the code is much more complex.

Here is updated previous patch with fixed leak.
msg271743 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-07-31 14:33
I would very much like to see this in 3.6. Who could review it?
msg271745 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-31 17:22
I intend to review this. As this is not a new feature, it doesn't need to be completed by beta 1. I'm focusing my energies on new features, then I'll look at this.
msg271747 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-07-31 17:59
Since this introduces a new opcode, this is a new feature. Seems opcodes never were added at beta stage before 3.5b1.
msg273776 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-08-27 12:23
So does this (new opcode) count as a new feature? It would be great to give f'' strings a flying start, saying that not only they're cool, they're also faster than anything that you've used before.

Here some more mini-benchmarks with serhiy's patch2 applied, the times are pretty stable:

    % python3.6 -mtimeit -s 'x = 42' '"%s-" % x'
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.184 usec per loop

    % python3.6 -mtimeit -s 'x = 42' 'f"{x}-"' 
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.142 usec per loop


    % python3.6 -mtimeit -s 'x = "42"' 'f"{x}{x}"'
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.0709 usec per loop

    % python3.6 -mtimeit -s 'x = "42"' '"%s%s" % (x,x)'
    1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.213 usec per loop

    python3.6 -mtimeit -s 'x = "42"' '"".join((x, x))'
    10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.155 usec per loop

This is only really achievable with some kind of bytecode support.
msg273778 - (view) Author: Philip Dubé (Demur Rumed) * Date: 2016-08-27 13:04
I don't think lack of precedence is a reason to say new opcodes are new features. More that generally new opcodes are created for new features
msg273816 - (view) Author: Raymond Hettinger (rhettinger) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-08-28 08:27
I put this in the "new feature" category in the sense that after beta we're trying to stabilize the code base.  Introducing a new opcode is a higher risk change that needs to go in the release cycle as early as possible.
msg274322 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-03 19:48
Left a review comment. I'd like to see this in before 3.6 beta 1.
msg274326 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-09-03 20:40
I tried to post a comment on rietveld, but 500 infernal error...

PyUnicode_New(0, 0) will return unicode_empty. If unicode_empty is NULL, then it will also initialize it. It would be cleanest if unicode_empty was statically created.

NULL cannot be used as the separator argument to `PyUnicode_Join(PyObject *separator, PyObject *seq)` to mean an empty string, as it already means ' ' (space!).
msg274327 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-03 20:58
Of course. Never mind. LGTM.
msg274345 - (view) Author: Antti Haapala (ztane) * Date: 2016-09-04 06:58
Though it is clean to do like this: let _PyUnicode_JoinArray have `NULL` mean empty string, as it is more logical anyway; then PyUnicode_Join itself just needs to:

   if (separator == NULL) {
       separator = PyUnicode_FromOrdinal(' ');
       /* check omitted */
       res = _PyUnicode_JoinArray(separator, items, seqlen);
   else {
      res = _PyUnicode_JoinArray(separator, items, seqlen);

The NULL argument I guess isn't that common to pass to PyUnicode_Join (Python code especially would always have to pass in ' ' instead), so this shouldn't really affect performance for any case at all.
msg274605 - (view) Author: Roundup Robot (python-dev) (Python triager) Date: 2016-09-06 19:08
New changeset 28e280915508 by Serhiy Storchaka in branch 'default':
Issue #27078: Added BUILD_STRING opcode.  Optimized f-strings evaluation.
msg274608 - (view) Author: Serhiy Storchaka (serhiy.storchaka) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-06 19:23
Thank you for your review Eric. I considered passing NULL, but as Antti said, it is already used for space separated concatenation. PyUnicode_New(0, 0) is the obvious way to get an empty string, and I think it is fast enough. If this affects performance we can add additional microoptimization later.
msg274610 - (view) Author: Eric V. Smith (eric.smith) * (Python committer) Date: 2016-09-06 19:31
Now that I've looked at PyUnicode_New, I agree with using PyUnicode_New(0, 0). I can't imagine we could measure the difference with optimizing it in the opcode itself before calling PyUnicode_New.

Thanks for adding this, Serhiy. I think it's great stuff, and works well with FORMAT_VALUE.
Date User Action Args
2022-04-11 14:58:31adminsetgithub: 71265
2016-09-06 19:31:16eric.smithsetassignee: eric.smith -> serhiy.storchaka
messages: + msg274610
2016-09-06 19:23:54serhiy.storchakasetstatus: open -> closed
resolution: fixed
messages: + msg274608

stage: resolved
2016-09-06 19:08:16python-devsetnosy: + python-dev
messages: + msg274605
2016-09-04 06:58:22ztanesetmessages: + msg274345
2016-09-03 20:58:25eric.smithsetmessages: + msg274327
2016-09-03 20:40:37ztanesetmessages: + msg274326
2016-09-03 19:48:13eric.smithsetmessages: + msg274322
2016-08-28 08:27:10rhettingersetmessages: + msg273816
2016-08-27 13:04:54Demur Rumedsetmessages: + msg273778
2016-08-27 12:23:50ztanesetmessages: + msg273776
2016-07-31 17:59:17serhiy.storchakasetmessages: + msg271747
2016-07-31 17:22:05eric.smithsetmessages: + msg271745
2016-07-31 14:33:09ztanesetmessages: + msg271743
2016-07-15 19:41:07serhiy.storchakasetfiles: + fstring_build_string_2.patch

messages: + msg270505
2016-07-15 07:03:00ztanesetmessages: + msg270469
2016-07-13 22:04:03ztanesetmessages: + msg270347
2016-07-13 21:56:47Demur Rumedsetnosy: + rhettinger
2016-07-13 20:40:31ztanesetmessages: + msg270344
2016-07-13 20:11:37serhiy.storchakasetfiles: + fstring_build_string.patch

messages: + msg270339
2016-07-13 18:09:17serhiy.storchakasetmessages: + msg270333
2016-07-13 17:02:38Demur Rumedsettype: enhancement -> performance
2016-07-13 15:47:56Demur Rumedsetmessages: + msg270319
2016-07-13 14:44:09ztanesetmessages: + msg270312
2016-07-13 13:14:44Demur Rumedsetfiles: + fstrtup2.patch

messages: + msg270308
2016-07-13 01:10:15Demur Rumedsetfiles: + fstrtup.patch
keywords: + patch
messages: + msg270281
2016-07-13 01:03:24Demur Rumedsetmessages: + msg270280
2016-07-11 09:25:06ztanesetmessages: + msg270167
2016-07-10 22:18:43eric.smithsetmessages: + msg270136
2016-07-10 21:35:56ztanesetmessages: + msg270135
2016-07-10 16:10:10serhiy.storchakasetnosy: + Demur Rumed
2016-07-10 16:08:43serhiy.storchakasetnosy: + serhiy.storchaka
messages: + msg270095
2016-07-10 12:52:17ztanesetmessages: + msg270083
2016-05-21 22:16:07mjpieterssetmessages: + msg266031
2016-05-21 22:12:17mjpieterssetnosy: + mjpieters
2016-05-21 20:15:28eric.smithsetmessages: + msg266021
2016-05-21 19:44:44eric.smithsetassignee: eric.smith
2016-05-21 19:22:45ned.deilysetnosy: + eric.smith
2016-05-21 19:18:36ztanecreate